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Lazy Eye (Amblyopia) in Children – Know The Basic Causes & Treatments

Amblyopia or commonly known as Lazy eye is a condition of less vision one or both eyes without any detectable signs in the eye. Where eye looks normal but there is visual development disorder. It is a very common vision problems among children, most of the time one eye is affected.

A child can see a object clearly when brain can helps to detect it properly, this starts to happen when our human life is growing, so in this growing phase if that child can not see the objects due to any reasons then brain also use to accept that improper images of objects, so brain is not able to play it role properly.

Causes:- 

1. Refractive Error – is most common causes in one eye or sometimes both eyes. Uncorrected refractive errors like hypermetropia, myopia, astigmatism, anisometropia where difference in power in both eyes may cause. The affected eyes may not look different from seeing eye.

2. Strabismic Amblyopia – This is for the eyes are having squint or misalignment in both eyes because the affected eye may be bend in, out, up and down.

3. Abnormality in any part of eyeball like cataract by birth, drooping of eyelids, corneal opacity present in visual zone may cause of it.

4. Toxic Amblyopia – This is secondary cause of amblyopia not by birth, mainly occurs in adult, the cause is use of tobacco, ethyl alcohol and some use of drugs like Quinine, Ethambutol for tuberculosis treatment. In this near vision will totally affect with retinal disorders and visual fields defects.

Managements:-

So, there is a chance of huge success if we treat it in early age, for that the better result will be where eye has the ability of developing. We can perform treatment till the young age at 15 years. The parents have to aware of eye check-ups of their child, though the child is complaining or not.

1.First is to correct the refractive error by the use of glass. Depends on age the glass power will prescribe, age up to 5years full correction needs, also regular 6months check-up for any glass power change its quite normal.   

2.Patching – This is very affective way to treat where the good seeing eye will close and the weak eye will practise to see. It is not very easily acceptable for young child, in this case parents should be encouraging and consistent in overserving. It is better to not wait for until child will be old because developing age has more chance to improve vision.

3.Use of Atropine Eye Drops- We can use Atropine drops in case of children who are not cooperative with patching, so we can put atropine drops in non-amblyopic eye where worse eye will work more because seeing eye will be blur for drop. This is affected in mild amblyopia.

4.Surgical- We can go for surgery in case of strabismus or squint but it is a secondary option. In congenital cataract first operate and then correct it with aphakic correction.

5.Vision Therapy- Synoptophore is machine for amblyopia therapy to stimulate the retina, regular visit to eye care practitioner for exercise through it and also record the improving vision.

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Use Of Laser In Eye Treatment

LASER- Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation:-

We now a days always heard about LASER, then what is this laser. It is a narrow beam of one wave length with coloured parallel rays of light and it can easily pass through the tissue or any object.

Several use of Laser in eye treatments which is very effective and safe in result. The main mechanism of laser is to accumulate of light by tissue and converted into heat by this phenomenon that tissue can change its state.

Use for Retinal Disorders:-

The very common condition is Diabetic Retinopathy in which retina has blood haemorrhages, weak blood vessels, so laser will apply to control this eye condition from more deterioration, macular diseases like macular oedema or swelling, age related macular degeneration (age related effects on retina).

Use for Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP):-

This condition just after birth of new born baby with low birth weight and also stays in oxygenation for prolong time due to any disfunction of body, for this reasons that baby’s retina may weak in nature, it may be a risk factor of retinal detachment or neovascularisation. Laser is using to control further damage of vision.

Use for Glaucoma:-

A vital role has to control the eye pressure, use laser to make a tiny hole on edge of Iris, clinically named Peripheral Iridectomy and Laser trabeculoplasty.

Use for Capsulotomy:-

After few years of cataract surgery, the posterior capsule where IOL is placed may be hazy or thick in nature, the laser cleans that capsule so the vision of that person can also improve as before.

Use for Cataract Surgey:-

Laser is used to make a small cut to enter into the eye and also to break the nucleus of our natural opaque lens. Though the blade will use but the power of ultrasound use is less, recovery time is minimum.

Use to Remove Refractive Error or Eye Glass Power:-

A very commonly known to general people with the help of laser correction of eye power. LASIK (Laser Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis), in this case a thin flap of cornea is done by blade or keratome or femtosecond laser and reshape the cornea by removal of some tissue using excimer laser.

 So, we have some brief idea that laser has many useful acceptable role in eye treatments in the world of Ophthalmology.

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Why Reading Glass at 40’s

We See the middle age or aged people are using reading glass to see near object or reading materials. This condition is common to every human because it is a age related process, clinically known as Presbyopia.

What is Presbyopia: –

It is a condition when our near vision will gradually weak, we cannot focus near objects properly at the age of 40 or more. People may face also headache, neck pain strain, while doing near work.

Physiology Behind It: – 

The ciliary muscles in eye which helps to our natural lens to change its shapes and size while focusing near objects and as well as distance, so now after 40 this muscle loos its elasticity and cannot help to lens in focusing, mainly in near works. This character of lens is Accommodation. Whereas this accommodation ability in children is higher than adult because their muscles are more active.  

Therefore, it is difficult for Lens to focus we have to give a support from outside that is mainly reading glass as a form of spectacle or contact lens rarely.

Reading glasses are always plus in Power. It will magnify the near objects and enhance the image quality. People feels more comfortable I their daily life activity. The power of the glasses are starts from +0.75DS to +3.00 DS. The power will change slowly with increasing age and the power will change in every 1to 2 years.

Sometimes Presbyopia may happen 2 to 3 years before 40 is called Early Presbyopia also quite natural or sometimes it will come late at 42.

We always advice to use reading glass or Bifocal spectacle while near work, this is the main way out for this condition. Periodical eye check-up also advice with eye specialist.