Vision & Health

Dry Eyes: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments – Recent Study By Eyesight4you

Dry eye condition has a lot of reasons and bunch of effective treatment options, it can be easily treated, depends on cause and sign symptoms. Your eye doctor may suggest, for success of that particular dry eye condition need to know signs and severity, though patient have to agree with doctor’s treatment, understand the counselling and follow the instructions which have given with consistent follow ups.

It is a condition where tear production of eye is less than normal or when tears evaporates very frequently, this is common also in healthy population of 20% who are visiting in hospital but it may chronic in nature when it leads to Dry eye syndrome may cause infection of eyes, happens in old age, women are more affected than men.


  • Insufficient production of tears from eye glands, tear is not properly distributing on eye surface.
  • Inflammation of Eyelids glands which helps to make tears composition, tears made with oily layer (lipid layer), watery layer (aqueous layer), mucin layer. Problems with these 3 layers can cause insufficient tears distribution.
  • Systemic diseases like Rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, Sjogren syndrome, diabetes, vitamin-A deficiency, any refractive surgery done, menopause.
  • Some medicines may cause dryness in eye such as sleeping tablets, contraceptive pills, morphine or painkiller, decongestants, antihistamines.
  • Another cause now a day’s continuous use of computer, laptops, electronic gadgets, it has excessive light rays comes into eye and constant eye focusing may less blinking rate, it may cause dryness in eye, long time of driving, air blow on eyes may get dry.
  • Environment may cause like hot, sunny weather, sometimes air-condition room.

Person has Dryness may feel these Symptoms, are:-

  • Burning sensation and soreness in eye
  • Foreign body sensation
  • Mild discharge
  • Blur vision, difficult to open eyes
  • Sensitive to light, air blow smoke
  • Redness, irritation in contact lens wear


Lubricating Eyedrops – Person can put artificial eye drops (composition is sodium-carboxy-methyl -cellulose, polyethylene glycol 400 & propylene glycol ophthalmic solution) which helps to keep moist eye surface feels smooth and cool effects.

Medicines- Immunosuppressive drug.

Tear duct plug- Silicon plugs is used to block tear duct to increase lubrication for longer stay of tears.

Vision correction with correct power glass, wear fully wrap glass protect from hot air, smoke, pollution. Clean eye lids regularly to remove discharge or dirt accumulation.

Some diets can helps reduce dry eyes that is omega-3, omega-6 fatty acid, oily fish, walnuts olive oil, pumpkin, soybean etc.  

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Vision & Health

Glaucoma as a Silent Vision Killer – Need to Know It Clearly

Glaucoma is an eye disease where number of factors include, mainly optic nerve will damage, intra ocular pressure will increase and visual field defects occurs, but field defect may happen in normal eye pressure.

We advise regular yearly eye check up need after 40, optic nerve cupping check-up, eye pressure measurement, visual field test or Perimetry do perform. If you are suspect of glaucoma you definitely go through this test in every year.

Eye Anatomy to Understand the Origin of Glaucoma:- 

The front part is clear cornea it allows the light entering, the colour part is iris which helps to control pupil to allows proper amount light, the lens focus light to retina this is photo sensitive layer, at last optic nerve will carry stimulation to brain.

Eye ball is full with clear fluid, front part of eye filled with aqueous humour and back part is vitreous humour which maintain the shape of eyeball.

The iris edge has a drainage system, aqueous humour flows through this system, this proper system of drainage helps to keep eye pressure normal if it is not working cause eye pressure vary. High eye pressure damages optic nerve fibre layer and gradual loss of visual field.

Types of Glaucoma:- 

1. Congenital Glaucoma:- 

High intra ocular pressure due to abnormal development of angle of anterior chamber with improper drainage of aqueous result vision loss.

2. Adult Glaucoma:-

  • Primary open angle:-  Where angle of anterior chamber appears normal but sometimes eye pressure will increase more than 20mmHg whole day, optic nerve cupping, visual field defects. It has unknown cause though we can consider these as risk factors are- increase eye pressure, family history, myopia, diabetes, smoking, steroid intake.
  • Primary angle closure: It presents with close angle or narrow angle of anterior chamber, result is sudden high IOP due to aqueous outflow block. Risk factors are-person with high plus power, family history, application of dilating drops.
  • Secondary glaucoma: Associated with secondary causes, lens matter leakage or hyper mature cataract, uveitis, intra ocular tumour, steroid drops or tablets, trauma or intra ocular haemorrhage.

Tests for Diagnose Glaucoma: –

It is important to protect our sight, first 3 tests are primarily necessary to perform before starting treatment or making decision. Doctor will recommend these tests because all factors should make sense to prescribe treatments. Individual can always take a second opinion to be sure on the diagnosis.

  • Intra ocular pressure measurement which is Tonometry.
  • Ophthalmoscopically dilated eye exam for optic nerve cupping.
  • Perimetry, visual field check-up.
  • Gonioscopy to evaluate the angle where iris and cornea attached.
  • Pachymetry to corneal thickness measurement.

Treatment: –

  • Eyedrops to maintain eye pressure by the use of Beta blockers drops.
  • Medical procedures are by using laser removes small amount of tissue from edge of iris so it makes a tiny hole to maintain the eye pressure, is called Peripheral Iridotomy.
  • Another surgical procedure is Trabeculectomy which open the drainage path within eyes and allows more fluids to drain to reduce inside pressure.

Vision & Health

Squint Eye – Know Causes & Managements, Eyesight4you Says

Squint also clinically known as Strabismus is a condition where both eyeballs are not straight aligned to each other, looks like cross eye because they are not parallel. One eye focus to a particular object where other eye bends inwards, upwards, downwards or outwards.

Physiologically we have 6 extra ocular eye muscles which help in eye movements, so when squint present these muscles are not working together or sometimes any muscles paralysis or may brain disorder happens with it.

We can define it generally by two types:- 

Phoria:- is a hidden type squint, a condition in which the eye has a tendency to bend one side while looking distance or near but not all the time. Types are esophoria deviate inward, exophoria deviate outward these both are common, hyperphoria deviate upward, hypophoria deviate downward very rare, cyclophoria deviation is cyclic order.

Tropia:- is a squint which is constant deviation of eyes, you can see the deviation is present all time. Types are- esotropia(convergent), exotropia(divergent) these are very common.


  1. Uncorrected refractive errors likes hypermetropia very frequent, myopia or astigmatism.
  2. Hereditary or may come by family.
  3. Due to tumour in brain or nerve.
  4. Sometimes by birth without any cause.


  1. Correction of eye power or sometimes perform with cycloplegic means after putting atropine, homide eye drops.
  2. Cover test- We can cover one by one eye then examiner can see the affected eye will bend under the cover, if remove the cover eye will suddenly fix the object while another eye remains fixed that object.
  3. Ocular movements check- Eyeball is moving in all the direction without any restriction.
  4. Corneal reflex test- Grossly estimation of angle of squint, the patient is instructed to fix a point light which is present 40cm in front, we have to observe the corneal reflex from centre of pupil in squinting eye.


  1. Full refractive error correction it will improve vision and may correct squint partially or sometimes totally, another option is Prism may add in glass prescription.
  2. In early age not for adult, patching or occlude one eye after correcting refractive error the better eye will close and the squinting eye should use more and more.
  3. Muscles exercise is very effective by Synaoptophore machine to stimulate retina and muscles.
  4. Surgical treatment to correct extraocular muscles.