Glaucoma is an eye disease where number of factors include, mainly optic nerve will damage, intra ocular pressure will increase and visual field defects occurs, but field defect may happen in normal eye pressure.
We advise regular yearly eye check up need after 40, optic nerve cupping check-up, eye pressure measurement, visual field test or Perimetry do perform. If you are suspect of glaucoma you definitely go through this test in every year.
Eye Anatomy to Understand the Origin of Glaucoma:-
The front part is clear cornea it allows the light entering, the colour part is iris which helps to control pupil to allows proper amount light, the lens focus light to retina this is photo sensitive layer, at last optic nerve will carry stimulation to brain.
Eye ball is full with clear fluid, front part of eye filled with aqueous humour and back part is vitreous humour which maintain the shape of eyeball.
The iris edge has a drainage system, aqueous humour flows through this system, this proper system of drainage helps to keep eye pressure normal if it is not working cause eye pressure vary. High eye pressure damages optic nerve fibre layer and gradual loss of visual field.
Types of Glaucoma:-
1. Congenital Glaucoma:-
High intra ocular pressure due to abnormal development of angle of anterior chamber with improper drainage of aqueous result vision loss.
2. Adult Glaucoma:-
- Primary open angle:- Where angle of anterior chamber appears normal but sometimes eye pressure will increase more than 20mmHg whole day, optic nerve cupping, visual field defects. It has unknown cause though we can consider these as risk factors are- increase eye pressure, family history, myopia, diabetes, smoking, steroid intake.
- Primary angle closure: It presents with close angle or narrow angle of anterior chamber, result is sudden high IOP due to aqueous outflow block. Risk factors are-person with high plus power, family history, application of dilating drops.
- Secondary glaucoma: Associated with secondary causes, lens matter leakage or hyper mature cataract, uveitis, intra ocular tumour, steroid drops or tablets, trauma or intra ocular haemorrhage.
Tests for Diagnose Glaucoma: –
It is important to protect our sight, first 3 tests are primarily necessary to perform before starting treatment or making decision. Doctor will recommend these tests because all factors should make sense to prescribe treatments. Individual can always take a second opinion to be sure on the diagnosis.
- Intra ocular pressure measurement which is Tonometry.
- Ophthalmoscopically dilated eye exam for optic nerve cupping.
- Perimetry, visual field check-up.
- Gonioscopy to evaluate the angle where iris and cornea attached.
- Pachymetry to corneal thickness measurement.
- Eyedrops to maintain eye pressure by the use of Beta blockers drops.
- Medical procedures are by using laser removes small amount of tissue from edge of iris so it makes a tiny hole to maintain the eye pressure, is called Peripheral Iridotomy.
- Another surgical procedure is Trabeculectomy which open the drainage path within eyes and allows more fluids to drain to reduce inside pressure.