Amblyopia or commonly known as Lazy eye is a condition of less vision one or both eyes without any detectable signs in the eye. Where eye looks normal but there is visual development disorder. It is a very common vision problems among children, most of the time one eye is affected.
A child can see a object clearly when brain can helps to detect it properly, this starts to happen when our human life is growing, so in this growing phase if that child can not see the objects due to any reasons then brain also use to accept that improper images of objects, so brain is not able to play it role properly.
1. Refractive Error – is most common causes in one eye or sometimes both eyes. Uncorrected refractive errors like hypermetropia, myopia, astigmatism, anisometropia where difference in power in both eyes may cause. The affected eyes may not look different from seeing eye.
2. Strabismic Amblyopia – This is for the eyes are having squint or misalignment in both eyes because the affected eye may be bend in, out, up and down.
3. Abnormality in any part of eyeball like cataract by birth, drooping of eyelids, corneal opacity present in visual zone may cause of it.
4. Toxic Amblyopia – This is secondary cause of amblyopia not by birth, mainly occurs in adult, the cause is use of tobacco, ethyl alcohol and some use of drugs like Quinine, Ethambutol for tuberculosis treatment. In this near vision will totally affect with retinal disorders and visual fields defects.
So, there is a chance of huge success if we treat it in early age, for that the better result will be where eye has the ability of developing. We can perform treatment till the young age at 15 years. The parents have to aware of eye check-ups of their child, though the child is complaining or not.
1.First is to correct the refractive error by the use of glass. Depends on age the glass power will prescribe, age up to 5years full correction needs, also regular 6months check-up for any glass power change its quite normal.
2.Patching – This is very affective way to treat where the good seeing eye will close and the weak eye will practise to see. It is not very easily acceptable for young child, in this case parents should be encouraging and consistent in overserving. It is better to not wait for until child will be old because developing age has more chance to improve vision.
3.Use of Atropine Eye Drops- We can use Atropine drops in case of children who are not cooperative with patching, so we can put atropine drops in non-amblyopic eye where worse eye will work more because seeing eye will be blur for drop. This is affected in mild amblyopia.
4.Surgical- We can go for surgery in case of strabismus or squint but it is a secondary option. In congenital cataract first operate and then correct it with aphakic correction.
5.Vision Therapy- Synoptophore is machine for amblyopia therapy to stimulate the retina, regular visit to eye care practitioner for exercise through it and also record the improving vision.